News

This summer, the Spreewald region will be transformed to an huge Open-Air-Cinema. In cooperation with the FilmFestival Cottbus, the charitable club  “Verein für Film- und Medienpädagogik Cottbus e.V.” offers hilarious, emotional and funny European movies at different Open-Air-Locations in the Spreewald region from 3rd June to 6th October. The season started already at Hafen 2 in Lübben, with a favorite of the 23rd edition of…
The Jewish Film Festival Berlin & Brandenburg (JFFB) will take place for the 23rd time from 2nd to 11th July . The FilmFestival Cottbus is proud to be a partner of this  renownedfestival for the second time. The JFFB presents not only an enormous artistic range of current films , but above all differentiated, and contradictory views on Jewish everyday life, culture and history worldwide.…
From June 5 to 12, Elvira Geppert is scouting at the 16th Transilvania International Film Festival in Cluj-Napoca. During the days of Romanian film, she watches the most recent Romanian films and researches latest news from one of the most creative film countries in South Eastern Europe. During the Industry Days, she will join the closed screenings which present the most current Romanian films which…
Vom 5. bis 12. Juni recherchiert Elvira Geppert auf dem 16. Internationalen Transilvania Filmfestival in Cluj-Napoca. Während der Tage des rumänischen Films sichtet sie brandneue rumänische Filme für den Wettbewerb und andere Reihen des FilmFestival Cottbus und führt Gespräche mit den Filmschaffenden. Im Rahmen der Industry Days sieht sie in den "closed screenings" Filme, die kurz vor der Fertigstellung stehen, so dass dem Publikum in…
Our curator of the Russian Day, Marcel Maïga, joins the  Filmfestival Kinotavr in Sochi from 8th to 14th of June. The most important national Russian film festival will take place for the 28th time in Sochi. The main competition shows 14 current feature films, including the debut film TESNOTA by Kantemir Balagov which won the FIPRESCU award at this year's Cannes Festival, as well as…
The Managing Board of the Kosovo Cinematography Center has appointed two evaluation juries for the projects that have applied for financial support in this year’s competition of Kosovo Cinematography Center annual bid. Buder will participate in the jury which will evaluate feature films, debutant and minor co-production and will be joined by Isa Qosja, renowned Kosovar filmmaker who has had a huge success with the…
From May 17 to 28, the international film industry will meet for the 70th time at one of the world's most important film festivals. The festival will present a few new films by cult directors and new talents from East Central and Eastern Europe - the new films by Sergej Loznitsa, Kornél Mundruczó and Andrey Zvyagintsev participate in the competition for for the "Golden Palm".…
FilmFestival Cottbus cooperates with the Neisse Filmfestival again From 9th to 14th May, the international Neiße Filmfestival take place for the 14th time. Since 2004, the Filmfestival has provided a forum for young filmmakers from Poland, the Czech Republic and Germany. This year, the festival will be offering cross-border events in the triangle between those three neighboring countries, showing more than 130 feature, documentary and…
"FilmPOLSKA", the largest Polish film festival outside Poland, will take place from 3rd  to 10th  May in Berlin for the 12th time. From the somnambolian techno-trip "All These Sleepness Nights" to the mother-daughter docudrama "You Have No Idea How Much I Love You", the festival gives an impression of the entire range of contemporary Polish cinema, from the traditionally strong documentary film to internationally acclaimes…
The trailer of the FilmFestival Cottbus 2016, "The Windmaker", runs in the competition of the 20th "Spotlight" festival in Stuttgart. The festival takes place from 4th to 6th  May. It was founded in 1998 as the "International Festival for TV spots and TV-Spots advertising film" in Ravensburg (Southern Germany). In the meantime, seven categories are being involved in various competitions: television and cinema commercials; trailers…
The FilmFestival Cottbus is one of the partners of the project "Oppose Othering" initiated by the goEast-Film Festival  in Wiesbaden. Young filmmakers from Germany and Central and Eastern Europe are traveling together in two-country teams through their countries: the aim is to cinematically engage with people with differing social, religious, cultural, ethnic origin and / or sexual identity, and to portray projects that promote solidarity,…
Under the title "German Cinema - Německe kino - German Cinema", the FilmFestival Cottbus will present a program with four German feature films and five short films at Finále Pilsen (20th to 26th April). The series was developed in cooperation with the most important national film festival of the Czech Republic and is supported by the German-Czech Future Fund. The program includes Pepe Danquart 's…
The Polish THE LAST FAMILY won the prize for the Best film at the Vilnius Film Festival "Kino Pavasaris" worth 5000 Euro. Jan P. Matuszyński's portrait of the family life of the cult painter Beksiński was awarded by the jury of the competition section "New Europe - New Names", which shows feature films from Eastern Central and Eastern Europe. THE LAST FAMILY won awards for…
In its next edition, the FilmFestival Cottbus will show a country special dedicated to the film country of Belarus. A lively, independent film scene has been emerged there recently, whose work has already been successfully screened in the national competition of the Minsk "Listopad" film festival. One of the representatives is the filmmaker Vlada Senkova, whose first feature film COUNT IN ORANGES ran at the…
Auch wenn die Frühlingssonne gerade erst kräftig zu strahlen beginnt, wirft der 27. Jahrgang des FilmFestival Cottbus (7. bis 12. November 2017) bereits lange Schatten voraus. Zur Vorbereitung der nächsten Festivalausgabe suchen wir – zum Teil bereits ab Juni - für unser Team noch hochmotivierte, engagierte und freundliche Verstärkungen in der PR- und Marketingabteilung, der Programmabteilung und in der Gästebetreuung.  Mehr dazu findet Ihr unter…
The Vilnius International Film Festival "Kino Pavasaris" (Lithuanian for: Spring) invites its audience and international industry representatives from the 22nd March to 6th April for the 22nd time for a trip through the international independent and arthouse cinema landscape. Over 200 films in a total of 20 sections, from family entertainment to VR films, are screened. One of the most important sections is the "New…
Sergiusz Opaliński, one of the six participants of the Polish-Czech-German student jury of the “U18” youth film competition at the FilmFestival Cottbus 2016, won the Grand Prix of the 8th amateur film festival in Cottbus'  Polish twin town Zielona Góra with his film THE POWER (MOC) at 16th March. The ‘Star Wars’ parody is about a group of students, who are supported by none other…
On 16 March, the "Short Tiger 2017" were presented by the German Federal Film Board (FFA) in Berlin. Five extraordinary short films were awarded. One of the films focusing on flight and migration came from the Film University Babelsberg Konrad Wolf – MEINUNGSAUSTAUSCH (lit. EXCHANGE OPINIONS), directed by Sophie Linnenbaum and Sophia Bösch. The experimental documentary film tackles the fear of the Germans of the…
The public regional and municipal library C. Norwid in Cottbus' twin town Zielona Góra and the FilmFestival Cottbus have extended their long-term cooperation. The cooperation is part of the "Kozzi-Cybulski-Wilhelmi" film and theater festival that will take place from the 12th to the 16th July 2017 in Zielona Góra, Żary, Szprotawa and Wiechlice, dedicated to the work of the actors Maciej Kozłowski, Zbigniew Cybulski, Andrew…
Once again FilmFestival Cottbus together with connecting cottbus, Medienboard Berlin-Brandenburg and Mitteldeutsche Medienförderung (MDM) will present an Industry Diner at the 21. Sofia International Film Festival (March 9-31). In parallel to the most important filmfestival in Bulgaria the film market Sofia meetings takes place fom March 16 to 19. Focussing on (South) Eastern Europe new feature film projects will be presented and the most recent…
The short film MĚR (Lower Sorbian for: peace) by Anne-Kathrin Schöler-Rensch and Clemens Schiesko, which was awarded the Special Prize of the Foundation of the Sorbian People at the Cottbus Filmshow in 2015, will be running at the amateur film festival in Cottbus' twin town Zielona Góra (Poland). The Cottbus Filmshow annually opens one day before the official start of the FilmFestival Cottbus, presenting the…
This Wednesday the FilmFestival Cottbus and the East-West co-production market connecting cottbus (coco) celebrated the onset of the new year at the traditional East European Brunch, held to coincide with the Berlinale, within the framework of which two awards were conferred. The event were kicked off with the conferment by Dr. Gertraude Müller-Ernstberger, director of the Munich based Agency for Film and Television Rights (GWFF),…
At this year’s Berlin Film Festival, the FilmFestival Cottbus, in cooperation with connecting cottbus, will again organize the industry meeting “East European Brunch” in the representation of the federal state of Brandenburg in Berlin.During that reception, the Slovak production student Radka Babincová will receive the scholarship grant funded by German collective society GWFF - Gesellschaft zur Wahrnehmung von Film- und Fernsehrechten mbH, Munich. The price…
From February 3rd to 11th the International Short Film Festival Clermont-Ferrand will be held the 39th time. Following Cannes Clermont-Ferrand not only is the largest Filmfestival in France but furthermore the place to be of the International Short Film scene. Beyond the festival programme the Short Film Market offers specific programmes of selected countries. So among others, relevant production countries for Cottbus Film Festival like…
Was das Cottbuser Festivalpublikum bereits seit längerem schätzt - nämlich die außerordentliche Qualität des osteuropäischen Filmschaffens - davon kann sich nun auch jeder Filmfreund am TV überzeugen. Der WDR zeigt am 1. Februar um 23:25 Uhr Žiga Virc` HOUSTON, WIR HABEN EIN PROBLEM! erstmals im TV. Die höchst unterhaltsame Mockumentary feierte ihre Deutschland-Premiere im Rahmen des 26. FilmFestival Cottbus im November 2016 und war einer…
Olmo Omerzus FAMILY FILM, which competed in the competition of the FilmFestival Cottbus in 2015 and was awarded the prize for the best male actor (for Karel Roden), will be released in German cinemas on 2nd February by Déjà-Vu films. The Czech-Slovenian-French-German co-production is about a well-off family in Prague - mother, father, dog and two almost grown children - whose members are put to…
Cottbus goes West: at 25th and 28th January, FilmFestival Cottbus curator Jarosław Godlewski will present the short film program from last year's Cottbus youth film competition at the film festival Max Ophüls Preis in Saarbrücken. The Polish short ADAPTATION, directed by Bartosz Kruhlik, who grew up in the Lubusz region near the Polish-German border, VIKTORIA featuring Anjorka Strechel in the lead role, and STORM CELLS,…
From the 20th to the 29th January, the Trieste Film Festival will be held for the 28th time. The festival in the north-eastern Italian metropolis on the border to Slovenia is dedicated to the cinema of Southeast and East Europe. This year, the Romanian director Cristi Puiu and the Russian documentary film director Vitaly Manskij are invited as honorable guests, many other directors from the…
PATHS, the first feature by Chris Miera, director of the FilmFestival Cottbus trailer 2014 which adapted that year’s focus section’s subject “queerEAST”, is shown at the Berlin Film Festival 2017. PATHS has its world premiere in the Perspektive Deutsches Kino section. The drama tells about Andreas and Martin, a couple which had to realise during their first holiday since year’s, that their common emotions became…
Our partner festival goEast – Festival of Central and Eastern European Film launched the project OPPOSE OTHERING! in 2016, with the support of Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility and Future (Foundation EVZ). Young filmmakers from Germany and Central and Eastern Europe set off together in teams of two on a journey through their respective countries. Their central objectives: to use the means of cinema to investigate misanthropic…
In the first half of the year 2017, the German Culture Forum for Eastern Europe  will repeat four films, which were shown at the FilmFestival Cottbus 2016 as part of the special "Exploring the Past: German-Polish-Czech History through the Ages".  At 13th January, there is the opportunity to see Michał Korchowiec's MORGENROT again on big screen in the Berlin cinema "Krokodil". The filmmaker travels to…
THE ERLPRINCE, the current feature film by the Polish director Kuba Czekaj, whose BABY BUMP (photo) was shown in the youth film competition at the FilmFestival Cottbus in 2016, runs in the program of this year's Berlinale. THE ERLPRINCE, like BABY BUMP, is an unusual, innovative coming-of-age film about the endless challenges of puberty - an associative story of growing up: a fifteen-year-old boy between…
The local and cultural journalist Zdzisław Haczek was awarded the "Golden ducats" of the Lubuskie Voivodeship on December 22nd. The award has been given annually since 2013 for merits for the spread and protection of culture. Haczek, who lives in Zielona Góra, reports for the daily regional newspaper "Gazeta Lubuska". He also reports from the FilmFestival Cottbus, which he has regularly visited for 26 years.…
Alle Freunde des Märchen-Marathons am Jahresende dürfen sich über eine Verlängerung freuen. DAS SINGENDE, KLINGENDE BÄUMCHEN ist noch bis 25. Januar 2017 in der ARD Mediathek zu sehen. Die Neuverfilmung des Klassikers feierte ihre Weltpremiere im Rahmen des Kinderfilmsonntag auf dem zurückliegenden 26. FilmFestival Cottbus. Filmemacher und Darsteller erlebten am 13. November gemeinsam mit zahlreichen begeisterten Besuchern, die erstmalige Vorführung der Produktion von rbb und…
One day before the award ceremonies for the European Film Awards, Magdalena Sroka, head of the Polish Film Institute, Kirsten Niehuus, head of Medienboard Berlin-Brandenburg, Claas Danielsen, head of Mitteldeutsche Medienförderung, and Peter Dinges, head of Filmförderungsanstalt (FFA), signed an agreement on cooperation within the framework of the Polish-German Film Fund, which added the FFA Federal Film Fund as a new partner of this initiative.…
In April 2016, the goEast – Festival of Central and Eastern European Film saw the launch of the human rights oriented project OPPOSE OTHERING! Five young international directorial duo teams from Germany and Central and Eastern Europe are currently in the process of completing films that confront the phenomenon of focused misanthropy directed at groups – also known as “othering”. The project website is now…
TRANSIT HAVANA, the new documentary by Daniel Abma, will have it Cuban premiere at the 38th Havana Film Festival in the beginning of December 2016. The film about the initiative of president Raúl Castros daughter Mariela to offer transgender operations and support LGBT rights in the  Socialist country also talks about the situation of homosexuals and the every-day-life in Cuba. Abma was co-curator of this…
Sophie Linnenbaum, who directed the 2015 trailer of the FilmFestival Cottbus which picked up motives of the „Eastern Europe of Cities“ focus, won two awards at the 36th Filmschoolfest Munich. Her current short OUT OF FRAME, which was produced at the film university Potsdam-Babelsberg, won the Panther award for the best European film production and the audience award. Linnenbaum was also part of the jury…
The Slovak director Mira Fornay is currently the guest of the DAAD’s Artists in Berlin program. She has made a couple of short films and two features, which tackle the issue of migration, exclusion and discrimination. With close distance to all protagonists involved, her films offer a poignant reflection of today’s everyday racism – without moralizing. Fornay had been a member of the International Festival…
Right after its double win at the FilmFestival Cottbus (FIPRESCI-Prize and Prize of the Ecumenical Jury), the Hungarian director Attila Till is able to reap more praise for TISZTA SZÍVVEL/KILLS ON WHEELS in the form of not one, but six awards in Thessaloniki and Arras, respectively. The film portraying three wheelchair users who join forces as hitmen swept jury, critics and audiences off their feet at…
The FilmFestival Cottbus will be presented with two programmes at the 32nd interfilm International Short Film Festival  Berlin which will show 600 films from 70 countries between November 14 - 20, 2016.  The Focus programme Cuba in Shorts and the programme of the section Polskie Horyzonty comprising films which were made at the Gdynia Film School were curated in cooperation between the FilmFestival Cottbus and interfilm and have…
The LUBINAS have been handed over - and still there is plenty of opportunity to catch some festival highlights on Sunday. Three freshly selected winner films of the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus get a special screening starting from 15.00 at Weltspiegel: The Prize for the Best Youth Film went to GEWITTERZELLEN/STORM CELLS. It will be featured at 15.00 in the intermediate film programme halblangXdrei.  At 17.30 we…
The 26th FilmFestival Cottbus culminated on Saturday with the conferment of its much-sought after LUBINA awards, as well as prize money amounting to an approximate 80,000 EUR. On the occasion of the festival's 26th anniversary Dietmar Woidke, Minister-President of the Federal State of Brandenburg, stressed the continued relevance of the FilmFestival Cottbus: “This year the festival's outstanding selection of films has again impressed visitors and…
The festival friday awaits you packed with supporting events. Texts by Cuban author Santiago Díaz get the evening started in the lecture at Galerie Fango before the Party night is opened. Cuba Olvidar - the forgotten Cuba has us celebrating the way Cubans do till this day: with only water, lemon and rum. Start 20.00. Temperature rises at FESTIVALClub Scandale when DJ Holy Mo brings Fieber…
Young Belarusian film maker Vlada Senkova was awarded the FilmFestival Cottbus Discovery Script Doctoring Award yesterday.  The prize to a value of 5.000 EUR is donated by EastWest Filmdistribution GmbH, Vienna, and consists of counseling services for the development of a script ("script doctoring"). The Cottbus Discovery Script Doctoring Award which is awarded annually at the FilmFestival Cottbus supports directing talents from Eastern Europe. This year's award thus highlights…
The Filmfestival Cottbus does not just consist of an exciting film program, but of the people who arrive daily in the FESTIVALCentre. They direct, act, produce, work in one of our juries or have curated sections and series: Our guests are the heartbeat of every festival year! Check here who we welcomed on November 10:      
Spoilt for choice! The Krótkie Horyzonty at 19.00 feature finest current Polish short films, including LOKATORKI/TENANTS by Klara Kochańska. Her graduation film at the Polish National Film School in Łódź was awarded with a student Academy Award in 2016.    Meanwhile, at 20.00, you also have the chance to watch the smart docu-fiction HOUSTON, IMAMO PROBLEM!/HOUSTON, WE HAVE A PROBLEM! by the Slovenian director Žiga Virc. Subsequently, you have…
Today from 16.30 Mighty and the band Two Doors to 69 (Cottbus/Berlin), along with DJ Sammy Fernandez, will take over the square in front of FESTIVALCenter Stadthalle for several hours. Two Doors to 69 already performed at the  opening ceremony of the film festival at Staatstheater and will make sure to heat up a cold november afternoon. DJ Sammy Fernandez comes into play at 19.00…
Nightly scandal – everything may happen at our party in the name of twin cities Cottbus and Zielona Góra. Actress Beata Małecka, protagonist from 33 MINUTY W ZIELONEJ GÓRZE CZYLI W POŁOWIE DROGI/ 33 MINUTES IN ZIELONA GÓRA will take over the turntables as DJane „Żaba“ at the FESTIVALClub Scandale. Mighty and  Pocki complete the trio at the turntables of this night. We invite you to a glass of…
The Filmfestival Cottbus does not just consist of an exciting film program, but of the people who arrive daily in the FESTIVALCentre. They direct, act, produce, work in one of our juries or have curated sections and series: Our guests are the heartbeat of every festival year! Check here who we welcomed on November 8:      
On Tuesday, the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus was opened at Staatstheater Cottbus. The greatest surprise of the evening was the appearance of director Andreas Dresen. He held the laudation for Kirsten Niehuus, Managing Director of the Film Funding Department of the Medienboard Berlin-Brandenburg, who was awarded the honorary LUBINA in recognition of her achievements for the development of Central and Eastern European film.Niehuus ist the fourth laureate…
At 7 pm, the moment arrives: on the eve of the grand opening of the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus, the Cottbus FilmShow (Cottbuser FilmSchau) will hold its 14th edition in recognition of regional filmmaking from all of Berlin-Brandenburg and the Saxonian Lusatia region.  First in line of the four competition sections, the FilmShow not only offers a platform for presenting the 16 best short films by…
In only three days, a cosmopolitan attitude and hospitality will blend once again with an informal festival atmosphere when the film industry’s ‘Who is Who’ meet with friends of Central and Eastern European cinema. The grand opening will be presented by actor and director Axel Ranisch; notable guests include the Honorary Festival President and Academy Award winner István Szabó as well as numerous representatives from…
Big news for lovers of short films: This year's festival edition boasts selections of finest short films not only in one, but several programme sections. Already the opening short film programme on 8th November at Staatstheater Cottbus,  4 Kurze zur Begrüßung, will provide an international and diverse kick-off into the festival week. The programme will be screened again on Wednesday, November 9th , in the festival centre Stadthalle.…
In only five days, on November 8th, the FilmFestival Cottbus will officially be opened at the venue of the Staatstheater Cottbus. Until then, this year's Festival Trailer should get you excited for six days of finest Eastern European Cinema! In what has evolved into a festival tradition over the years, the Festival Trailer is produced by a team of students from the Film University Babelsberg…
The diplomatic and economic ice age in Cuba has come to an end, change is under way. How do Cuban and foreign filmmakers reflect the status quo of the Cuban society? Can parallels be drawn to the transitions that many Central and Eastern European countries underwent in the 1990s? Cinematic links, current topics and motifs are in focus at the FilmFestival Cottbus from November 8 to 13,…
What connects the parrot of French foreign minister Édouard Daladier to Trabant-adventurers with and without wheelchairs, two ‘silly’ daughters and a carer with acting ambitions? They are the stars in our National Hits, the programme section for real crowd-pleasers which have tills ringing in their home countries, but rarely make it to foreign cinemas. The following four current films have hit the mark in the…
Jan P. Matuszyński’s debut feature OSTATNIA RODZINA/THE LAST FAMILY won the price for the Best Polish Film at the 30th Warsaw screenings. The screenings were held in the frame of the 12th CentEast Market at the Warsaw Film Festival and featured eleven new Polish films, presented to an audience of international film festival scouts, producers and sales agents. The winner was chosen by the international…
Come and join us November 8-13! Only until October 23 film industry and press may accredit for the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus. Discover, discuss and network - a trip to the FilmFestival Cottbus is always a good choice.Programme highlights from the 26th editionBesides the three competitions the section "Focus Cuba" will mark the beginning of a new series exploring the shared experience of socialist regimes in…
Bernd Buder, programme director of the FilmFestival Cottbus, will join the “Regiofun” film festival from 19th to 23rd  October. The festival in the capital of the Silesian wojewod shows films which had been produced with the support of regional film funds. It takes place for the 7th time.  With the Polish fiction feature THE LAST FAMILY, WAVES and THESE DAUGHTERS OF MINE, the festival in…
Competition 2016 Twelve films from eighteen co-production countries compete for the awards in the Feature Film Competition while nine films from nine countries are part of this year’s Short Feature Competition:   Feature Film Competition ANAS CKHOVREBA/ANNA'S LIFENINO BASILIA, Georgia 2016, 109 MIN CÂINI/DOGSBOGDAN MIRICĂ, Romania, France, Bulgaria, Qatar 2016, 104 MIN ERNELLÁÉK FARKASÉKNÁL/IT’S NOT THE TIME OF MY LIFE SZABOLCS HAJDU, Hungary 2016, 81 MIN…
Less than four weeks to the start of the festival and the members of the all in all eight juries of the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus are eager to get active. Today we present the International Festival Jury that will assess the entries in the Feature Film Competition and thus has the honour of awarding the festival´s show-piece, the glass award sculpture LUBINA. Each award sculpture is…
European refugee experiences and German contemporary history are among the issues at stake at the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus. From November 8 - 13, 2016, we will present two film series  in the Specials programme section: "Exploring the Past: German-Polish-Czech History Through the Ages" and "Bridges and Breaks – Convergence in Post-Unification Germany". Both series investigate the disruption of identities in the lifes of people following historic upheavals. …
Peter Bebjaks ČISTIČ/THE CLEANER, which was shown in the Spectrum programme section at the FilmFestival Cottbus in 2015, won three IGRIC awards in its country of production, the Slovak Republic, on September 22, 2016. A total of 22 awards were given for the 26th time by the Slovak Film Union, Literary Fund and Union of Slovak Television Creators.  ČISTIČ/THE CLEANER won the Special Prize for…
From September 19th to 24th , 2016, the Gdynia Film Festival will take place for the 41st time. The most important national film festival in Poland gives a detailed overview on the current Polish cinema – from the feature film competition which offers 18 awards, to programme sections for experimental (“Visions Apart”) and children’s films as well as retrospectives showing Polish musical films and works by the…
The first sections and film series are posted to their fixed time slots in the 2016 programme. Programme Director Bernd Buder and head of Programme Coordination Susann Trzewik join forces to prevent any overlapping and make sure each space is filled with long, short and medium length film thrills. Until the entire programme is complete, it will take a little more patience. But not to…
The accreditation form for film industry and press for the 26th FilmFestival Cottbus is online. Come and join us November 8-13! Discover, discuss and network - a trip to the FilmFestival Cottbus is always a good choice.Programme highlights from the 26th edition: besides the three competitions the section >Focus Cuba< will mark the beginning of a new series exploring the shared experience of socialist regimes…